Only a very small number of the sculptures remain in situ; most of the surviving sculptures are today controversially in the British Museum in London as the Elgin Marblesand the Athens Acropolis Museumbut a few pieces are also in the Louvreand museums in Rome, Vienna and Palermo.
This represents the very first Panathenaia set in mythical times, the model on which historic Panathenaic processions was based.
The Parthenon was constructed with a passion for symmetry, especially for the classic ratio of 4 to 9. Around the cella and across the lintels of the inner columns runs a continuous sculptured frieze in low relief. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the artist Phidiaswho also had charge of the sculptural decoration.
Of all surviving structures, the Parthenon best exemplifies the various components of Greek architecture. The Parthenon had 46 outer columns and 23 inner columns in total, each column containing 20 flutes.
There is a double row of columns at either end.
Cella The inner structure contained the sanctuary itself. Cornice The platform on which the roof proper rested stood atop the layer of the triglyphs and metopes, but extended out somewhat beyond that layer.
The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today — the Parthenon, the Propylaiathe Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike — were erected during this period. The decorative stonework was originally highly coloured.
A flute is the concave shaft carved into the column form. By the yearthe sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze above the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper portion of the walls of the cellahad been completed.
The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. They were carved in high relief, a practice employed until then only in treasuries buildings used to keep votive gifts to the gods.
The anterior portion was revealed by Ross in and is now held in the Acropolis Museum of Athens.
Triglyphs and Metopes A second layer just above the architrave, this layer was once brightly colored. Rectangular features were measured in proportions that allowed them to be divided equally into a series of Pythagorean triangles, that is, triangles with ratios of 3 on the vertical, 4 on the horizontal, and 5 on the diagonal.
It stands on a platform or stylobate of three steps. On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1. Stylobate The temple rises from the ground on a three-tiered platform. Tethrippa of Helios and Selene are located on the left and right corners of the pediment respectively.
The precise composition of the acroteria remain a matter of conjecture, although small pieces believed to be part of the Parthenon have been found. In a stone temple, this gutter was included solely for the sake of tradition, although it had served an important purpose in the age of wooden temples.The Parthenon is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture.
The temple, wrote John Julius Cooper, "enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary. Its aesthetic appeal emanates from the refinement of many established norms of Greek architecture, and from the quality of its sculptural decoration.
The Parthenon epitomizes all the ideals of Greek thought during the apogee of the Classical era through artistic means. Architectural Features of the Parthenon. the Parthenon best exemplifies the various components of Greek architecture.
Stylobate. triangles with ratios of 3 on the vertical, 4 on the horizontal, and 5 on the diagonal. In the final analysis, however, the appearance of symmetry was more important than the reality, resulting in variations.
When work began on the Parthenon in BC, the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power.
Work on the temple continued until ; the Parthenon, then, represents the tangible and visible efflorescence of Athenian imperial power, unencumbered by the depradations of the Peloponnesian War.
The Parthenon is widely considered to be the apotheosis of classical architecture, regarded as an enduring symbol of Greek culture, Athenian democracy and Western civilization as a whole. It is constructed in the traditional Doric order of temple design, representing logic, morality, restraint and control.
Analysis of Important Themes in Greek Architecture Greek architecture begins with the simple houses of the Dark Age and culminates in the monumental temples of the Classical period and the elaborately planned cities and sanctuaries of the Hellenistic period.
The Parthenon’s architects were Ictinus and Callicrates, and the temple they.Download