Categorical Grants — money for specific purposes only, matching funds often required 3. Block Grants — general purpose money very loosely categorized with few strings attached — states given great latitude on how to use such money Ronald Reagan and subsequent conservatives have sought to change the focus of grant monies to block grants — success has been very limited.
Interest groups — individual interest groups often have less of a vital interest in a multi-purpose block grant. Revenue Sharing ended in — free flow of money, no matching funds required, no strings attached. Typically, they seek more money with fewer strings attached.
Nullification — issue decided eventually by the Civil War — states could not declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. Maryland — landmark Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government — main architect of the decision was Marshall.
Many unfunded mandates stem from court decisions. Large federal surpluses helped states meet needs 3. Intergovernmental Lobbies — state and local government groups that lobby in WashingtonD.
Many events and viewpoints shaped Federalism over time. Devolution — powers that have become Federal in nature devolving back to the states.
There are several reasons it is hard to shift from categorical to block grants: While the US Constitution clearly limited national powers, the 10th amendment was added as a further protection. Decided that the national government could establish a bank in MD and MD could not tax said bank.
The Interstate Commerce Clause — the national government has the power to regulate anything involved with interstate commerce. Grant-in-aid system — a way for the Federal government to compel compliance at the state level with Federal objectives in areas where the Federal government lacks authority.
Some push for this, but not much progress yet. Unfunded Mandates — In the last few decades, especially recently, the Federal government has issued mandates to the states that do not include funding to implement them examples — mandatory background checks on firearm purchasers, many provisions of No Child Left Behind, Americans with Disabilities Act.
Dual Federalism — a popular concept early, but virtually extinct today.American Government, Ninth Edition James Q. Wilson John J. DiIulio, Jr., University of Pennsylvania: Study Outline Use these detailed outlines to refresh your memory and review key themes. Study ap-us-government flashcards and notes.
Sign up for free today and boost your AP, SAT and high school exam scores! Study ap-us-government flashcards and notes. ap gov chapter 1 flash cards ; chaapter 2 notecards ; COMPANY.
About Us Contact Help. STUDY MATERIALS. U.S. Government and Politics. Learn about the people who make the rules, and how governing bodies work together to ensure our country's laws and ideals are upheld.
Our study guides are available online and in book form at. Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Politics exist partially because people disagree on who should govern and how they should govern, or AP US Gov notes - Chapter 1 Search Search. While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss.
AP Government – Chapter 3 & 4 Lecture Notes. Federalism and American Political Culture. Lea. Chapter 3. Federalism – a political system with local governmental units aside from the national unit. These governments are empowered with the ability to make some final decisions and protected in their existence by law (United States, Canada.Download