This difference in response set can lead to misleadingly different scores on personality tests. These developments have injected new life into the Rorschach as a psychometric instrument. Sophisticated devices have been developed to measure such physiological changes as pupil dilation, blood pressureand electrical skin responses under specific conditions.
Interviews, personality inventories, and projective techniques provide indications of subjective experience, although considerable clinical judgment is needed to infer what is going on within the client from test responses. Anxiety, for example, is a concept, or constructinferred in people from what they say, their facial expressions, and their body movements.
Employers, supervisors, and teachers—either formally or informally—make use of behavioral observations in making decisions about people for whom they have responsibility.
Projective techniques are believed to be sensitive to unconscious dimensions of personality. Actuarial description studies yield rules by which persons may be classified according to their personal attributes as revealed by their behaviour on tests, for example.
One of these is to keep track of the frequency with which people make designated responses during a given period of time e. More subtle than either the L or F scales is what is called the K scale. Hidden personality defense mechanisms, latent emotional impulses, and inner anxieties all have been attributed to test takers by making theoretical inferences from data gathered as they responded in projective situations.
Self-report instruments follow this strategy. Personality inventories Among the most common of self-report tests are personality inventories.
Also available in other languages, it consists in one version of items e. When taking such a test, the subject might have to decide whether each of a series of statements is accurate as a self-description or respond to a series of true-false questions about personal beliefs. In one popular approach, interpretation of a TAT story usually begins with an effort to determine who is the hero i.
Cognitive assessment can be carried out in a variety of ways. One is that they be reliable: For example, the number of aggressive responses made by children of different ages might be recorded.
Self-report tests The success that attended the use of convenient intelligence tests in providing reliable, quantitative numerical indexes of individual ability has stimulated interest in the possibility of devising similar tests for measuring personality.
Quantitative personality measurement is especially useful in comparing groups of people as well as individuals. It also provides information about the effects of procedures that are intended to modify both how subjects think about a problem and how they behave.
Other self-report techniques Beyond personality inventories, there are other self-report approaches to personality measurement available for research and applied purposes. Just as it is important to know what people do and how their behaviour affects others, it is also necessary to assess the thoughts that may lie behind the behaviour.
While projective stimuli are ambiguous, they are usually administered under fairly standardized conditions. These changes are related to periodic ratings of mood and to other physiological states that provide measures of stability and change within the individual.
The aim of the interview is to gather information, and the adequacy of the data gathered depends in large part on the questions asked by the interviewer. Other techniques such as inkblot tests for evaluating personality possess these characteristics to a lesser degree.Chapter 2 How is Personality Studied and Assessed?
Subjective Assessment o Measurement that relies on interpretation o You can take complex things and analyze the quickly o Issue is that people have different assessments o Weaknesses Different observers may make different judgements o Strengths Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained Reliability o The consistency of.
Chapter 2 How Is Personality Studied and Assessed? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Reliability refers to. A) the ability of a scale to condense information. B) the ability of a scale to measure what it is supposed to. The degree of consistency between the results of the same test taken on different occasions. Types of Personality Measures:Demographics and Lifestyle Uses information about a person’s age, place of birth, gender, family size, etc.
Can help researchers understand people based on their everyday lives. A method of assessing personality by applying personality theories to the study and analysis of diaries, letters, and other personal records. It is one of the few ways to achieve a comprehensive understanding of an individual across time; can be a very rich source of information.
Chapter 2 How is Personality Studied and Assessed? I Subjective Assessment Measurement that relies on interpretation Weaknesses • Different observes may make different judgments Strengths • Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained II Reliability The consistency of scores that are expected to be the same Test-retest reliability • Measure of consistency over time.Download