A longer life increases the surface area you have to test ideas and allows you to take on Summary of ggs projects that you might otherwise avoid with limited time. We often think there is a clear division between farmer and hunter gatherer lifestyles, but actually there can be a blending of the two.
Several conditions are necessary for this transition to occur: When Austronesians invaded the region, Indonesians fell under their control, but New Guineas with their food, germ resistance, and technologies were able to resist.
Smaller domesticable animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, and guinea pigs may be valuable in various ways to an agricultural society, but will not be adequate in themselves to sustain large-scale agrarian society.
The book is framed as a response to a question that Diamond heard from Yali, a charismatic New Guinean politician. Beginning about half a million years ago, the first human beings emerged in Africa, and eventually migrated around the rest of the world in search of game and other sources of food.
This was well before agriculture arrived in America, thus domesticating these animals never occurred to prehistoric hunter gatherers.
Summary of ggs this way, one person prevented an entire made of people with the technology from succeeding. Farming arose early in the Fertile Crescent since the area had an abundance of wild wheat and pulse species that were nutritious and easy to domesticate.
It is how cultures merge. That is, the land mass is more longitudinal than latitudinal. But most critics praise Diamond for the task he successfully took upon himself, which was to answer a very complex question.
Eurasian grains were richer in protein, easier to sow, and easier to store than American maize or tropical bananas. One collection of evidence for the difference in spread along geographic axes is the spread of domesticated crops.
Furthermore, east-west diffusion patterns ensured that, once one society developed language, it diffused, along with agriculture itself, to surrounding areas, particularly those with similar latitude. When Europeans made contact with the Americas, European diseases to which Americans had no immunity ravaged the indigenous American population, rather than the other way around the "trade" in diseases was a little more balanced in Africa and southern Asia: This led people to domestic earlier in those regions.
Due to environmental qualities like soil fertility, availability of domesticable animals, and availability of edible crops, however, it took a longer time for agriculture to supplant hunter-gatherer culture in most other regions.
The fragmentation of Europe was a key in enabling Columbus to cross the Atlantic.
To define the differences between developing cultures, Diamond emphasizes the effects of food production, writing, technology, government, and religion. After all, Diamond points out, a mere two centuries prior to his meeting Yali, New Guineans were still using stone tools. In Part One of the book, Diamond sketches out the course of recent human history, emphasizing the differences between civilizations.
It was easy for ideas, technologies, and innovations to spread between Europe, Asia, and Africa. By and large, Diamond argues, it is easier for ideas, goods, and foods to spread from east to west than it is for them to spread north and south—this is because the Earth spins east-west, meaning that areas with the same latitude share a similar climate and environment.
The combination of specialization and population growth leads to the accumulation of social and technologic innovations which build on each other. This, in turn, led to the spread of more agricultural societies across the globe.
Within two centuries, 95 percent of the native population had died, most of them from infectious diseases. As the environment changed, so did the evolution of moths. Agricultural societies then gained tremendous advantages over non-agricultural societies, because the increase in leisure time enabled people to develop technologies and centralized political structures, and the proximity to animals gave people immunities to deadly diseases.
Additional Thoughts This is a list of interesting notes, side stories, or additional thoughts that were sparked as a I read the book. Only agricultural communities could grow to the required population size. Even though some examples, like the Manhattan Project, exist.
He follows humans as they evolve biologically, and then he concentrates on specific representative societies to illustrate his findings. Most inventions are not a result of necessity, but rather the result of tinkers and curiousity.
These shared myths led to collaboration and increased power. Science, however, has produced no substantial evidence to indicate this is the primary cause of different outcomes.In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond outlines the theory of geographic determinism, the idea that the differences between societies and societal development arise primarily from geographical causes.
Guns Germs and Steel Chapter From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy "Descendents of those societies that achieved centralized government and organized religion earliest ended up dominating the modern world.
Guns, Germs, and Steel SummaryGive a brief summary of the book.
The only way to briefly summarize this book is to say that geography is responsible for nearly all the differences in human technological and political development. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13, years) is a transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Chapter 16 of 'Guns, Germs and Steel' points out that the Chinese didn't venture far outside of Asia, but even if they stayed home all day, they still got a lot done and even managed to build a.
I will therefore attempt to confine this review on the "meat and potatoes" of his book: the dramatic Spanish conquest of the Incas; the impact of continental geography on food production; and finally, the origins of the Eurasian development of guns, germs, and steel.Download